Thank you for your interest in the Strong African American Families Programs (SAAF and SAAF-T). Below is a list of frequently asked questions about the programs and training. We hope that this list will be a resource to help you determine how SAAF and/or SAAF-T can complement your organization’s efforts to serve your community.
What is the goal of SAAF? [Back to top]
The goal of SAAF is to build on the strengths of African American families and support parents and youth during the transition from early adolescence to the teen years with a specific emphasis on helping young people avoid risky and dangerous behaviors.
What is the goal of SAAF-T? [Back to top]
The goal of SAAF-T is to build on the strengths of African American families in order to promote positive development throughout the teenage years. SAAF-T focuses on reducing risks that can get in the way of positive development, with a particular focus on reducing substance abuse and sexual risk-taking that can lead to HIV and other STIs.
How is SAAF typically implemented? [Back to top]
SAAF is organized into seven sessions, typically implemented over the course of seven weeks. Each session is two hours. During the first hour, participants meet in separate Youth and Caregiver Sessions. During the second hour, all participants come together for the additional 30 minutes of content and is 2½ hours. The sessions begin with separate, concurrent Teen and Caregiver Sessions, followed by a Family Session where the Caregivers and Teens come together for family activities. SAAF-T includes a total of 15½ hours of program content.
Can the SAAF programs be implemented in an alternative time-frame (e.g., weekend retreat, monthly vs. weekly)? [Back to top]
Research findings associated with SAAF and SAAF-T are consistent with the implementation format described above. Agencies may opt to make changes to the manner in which the programs are implemented. However, they should do so with an understanding that deviating from the structure used in the research trial could decrease the likelihood of obtaining similar outcomes and may affect program participation.
How many staff are needed to implement the SAAF programs? [Back to top]
We recommend that sites implement SAAF with a minimum of three staff (two dedicated to Youth/Teen Sessions, one dedicated to Caregiver Sessions, and all three together for Family Sessions).
Family Session. SAAF includes a total of 21 hours of program content – 7 hours of Youth content, 7 hours of Caregiver content and 7 hours of Family content.
How is SAAF-T typically implemented? [Back to top]
SAAF-T is organized into five sessions, typically implemented over the course of five weeks. During sessions 1-3 and 5, families meet for two hours. Session 4 includes an
What is the ratio of facilitators to youth/teen and caregivers? [Back to top]
The programs are packaged to accommodate 12 youth or teens and their caregivers. The ratio for the Youth/Teen Sessions is one facilitator to six youth. The ratio for the Caregiver Sessions is one facilitator to 12 caregivers (possibly more if both caregivers attend). In the Family Session, the ratio is one facilitator per four families.
How many individuals are in a group? [Back to top]
As indicated above, the programs are packaged to accommodate 12 youth or teens and their caregivers. Note: If families include multiple youth or teens, agencies may elect to decrease the number of total families per group to ensure that the individual group size is manageable.
How many groups can run concurrently? [Back to top]
The timing of the groups is at the organization’s discretion. Considerations include available resources (trained facilitators, staff to recruit families/coordinate the groups, budget, a facility to host groups, etc.). Running multiple groups concurrently will involve additional costs for the site because multiple sets of materials will be needed.
What is the recommended target population for each program? [Back to top]
Both programs are designed for youth/teens who identify as African American or Black and at least one caregiver who can attend the program with the youth/teen. SAAF is designed for youth ages 10-14 and SAAF-T is designed for teens aged 14-16.
The programs are not recommended for groups with youth, teens or caregivers who have significant cognitive impairments or mental health problems that would interfere with engaging in program activities. The programs have not been tested with youth or teens who do not have at least one caregiver who identifies as African American. SAAF sites may determine additional inclusion criteria specific to their target populations.
Would it be appropriate for SAAF or SAAF-T to be implemented with age groups other than those suggested (e.g., 10-14 for SAAF and 14-16 for SAAF-T)? [Back to top]
The SAAF Programs were written to address specific developmental stages and the typical experiences and concerns of youth and teens at these stages. SAAF was tested with youth 11-12 years old. Given the relatively similar developmental experiences, the target group was expanded to include youth ages 10-14. The program was not tested on younger youth or older adolescents. SAAF-T was tested with teens 15-16 years old and expanded to include youth aged 14. The program was not tested on younger adolescents, older teens or young adults. While the ages above are what is recommended, agencies can consult with CFR’s Dissemination Coordinators to discuss considerations for implementing the programs with other ages.
Can the programs be adapted? How much flexibility is there? [Back to top]
Elements of SAAF and SAAF-T can be adapted, but the more the programs are changed from the original format the less likely it will yield outcomes similar to those obtained in the research trials. Technical assistance is available to provide guidance and support about adaptations as well as helping sites differentiate between core activities and those that can be adapted without affecting outcomes.
Do the programs have to be implemented with fidelity? [Back to top]
Fidelity is most commonly defined as the degree to which a program or method is implemented in the manner in which it is designed to be implemented. When implementing the SAAF and SAAF-T programs, it is strongly recommended that core components, highlighted in training, be implemented with fidelity. However, technical assistance is available to guide sites that may want to adapt certain elements of the program to meet specific needs of their target groups.
Are fidelity instruments available? [Back to top]
Yes, a Fidelity Manual is provided to sites to assess adherence to the programs. Agencies receive the Fidelity Manual and process evaluation documents with the purchase of the SAAF or SAAF-T Training and Program Package.
Does CFR collect data from participants at sites that have adopted SAAF and SAAF-T? [Back to top]
CFR does not collect participant data from sites that adopt SAAF and SAAF-T. The program package includes surveys for youth or teens and caregivers that agencies can use to collect pre- and post-test data from participants. For agencies that collect this data, CFR requests that the data be entered into the SAAF or SAAF-T Impact implementation support system, which will allow CFR to track implementation and outcomes.
What is the cost for implementing SAAF or SAAF-T per family or group? [Back to top]
Implementation costs can vary widely depending on a number of factors (e.g., stipends for staff, family incentives, the provision meals or childcare). Start-up costs and various implementation scenarios are provided on a program specific Budget Summary spreadsheet. Please contact the CFR Dissemination Office to request a copy of this document.
What types of organizations adopt and implement SAAF and SAAF-T? [Back to top]
The SAAF programs have been adopted by a variety of organizations – local organizations that provide services to youth and families, school systems, Communities that Care sites, Cooperative Extension office, and state organizations associated with the provision of mental health/counseling services and the Office of Juvenile Justice. Many of these organizations are willing to share their experiences with the SAAF and SAAF-T Programs. The SAAF Dissemination Office can provide contact information for current sites.
Why is it necessary to have a prevention program specifically targeting African American families? [Back to top]
CFR has been conducting research in African American communities for more than three decades. This research has revealed unique strengths and stressors for African American families that can be best addressed in a curriculum that focuses solely on these families. Of particular concern is the effect of discrimination on African American families and youth and teens as well as the dangers of substance use and risky sexual behavior among African American youth and teens. Offering African American families an evidence-based, culturally relevant curriculum provides the best opportunity for ensuring that families can address issues in ways that are meaningful and effective.
Can the SAAF programs be modified for use with other ethnic groups? [Back to top]
SAAF and SAAF-T were designed for and tested with African American youth/teens and their caregivers. While we do not recommend modifying SAAF for use with youth who do not identify as African American or as being of African descent, the CFR Dissemination Office is available to discuss possible ways of implementing SAAF with groups that include families with other racial backgrounds.
Are there any bilingual components to the programs? [Back to top]
There are no bilingual components.
Can SAAF and SAAF-T be used with youth/teens in urban and suburban settings? [Back to top]
SAAF and SAAF-T were evaluated with African American families living in small towns and rural communities in Georgia. This does not mean that the programs are ineffective with urban families, but simply that the programs were not tested with urban families. Many of the principles of “competence promoting” parenting (see below) are meaningful for families regardless of their residential settings. Further, the families that comprised the research studies that informed the development of the core SAAF program lived in rural, suburban and urban areas. Technical assistance is available to work with organizations who want to modify activities or add additional activities to the SAAF programs in order to address experiences that are more relevant to the families they serve.
What is the parenting philosophy that guides the SAAF programs? [Back to top]
The SAAF parenting philosophy involves fostering competence promoting parenting. Related parenting components include:
What types of risky behaviors do the programs address? [Back to top]
Both SAAF and SAAF-T address general risky behaviors, temptations and peer pressure related to behaviors like sexual activity, substance use, skipping school, vandalism, stealing/shoplifting, lying, and cheating. SAAF has a component that more directly addresses the consequences of substance use and introduces content related to sex (e.g., normal changes, pressures around sexual activity and reasons to wait). SAAF-T includes a component that directly address sex with content around sexual health, communication with partners about abstaining as well as safer sex, and correct use of condoms.
Why was the SAAF research focused on alcohol use versus other drugs? [Back to top]
The research study that tested the SAAF program was initially funded to decrease alcohol use. At the time, substance use in general was relatively low for the targeted age group (11-12 year-old African American youth), which made it an ideal time for prevention efforts. Of the substances that were being used at the time, alcohol was the most prevalent. The curriculum addresses general substance use, as well as other risky behaviors.
What led to the development of the SAAF-T Program? [Back to top]
The response to SAAF was extremely positive. Facilitators reported that many parents/caregivers indicated a need for additional content as their youth transitioned from middle school to high school. CFR conducted focus groups with community stakeholders to discuss the issues that teens were facing, reviewed the literature, and continued analyzing the data collected from SAAF. With these considerations in mind, SAAF-T was developed to address the disproportionate burden African American teens experience from involvement with risky behaviors. This includes the consequences of substance use, conduct problems, and risky sex, which pose significant threats to the health, well-being and future of African American teens. Studies have demonstrated that family-processes in general, and parenting in particular, can be powerful factors in protecting teens from both substance abuse and risky sexual behavior. Most programs that target risky sex, however, do not involve family members and are not developed for African American teens. SAAF-T was developed to address these limitations and target both substance use and sexual risk reduction among African American adolescents.
What are the major findings from the SAAF research trial? [Back to top]
Compared to participants who did not participate in SAAF:
What are the major findings from the SAAF-T research trial? [Back to top]
Compared to participants who did not participate in SAAF-T:
How was rural defined in the research? [Back to top]
Federal guidelines were used to define rural. The Census Bureau defines rural based on population density and includes territory outside places with a population of 2,500 or more or outside urbanized areas. The data reported in SAAF and SAAF-T are based on a classification system adopted by the Office of Management and Budget, in which all counties that are not designated as a part of metropolitan areas are considered rural. Metropolitan counties contain a place or urbanized area of 50,000 people or more and a total population of at least 100,000.