The Family and Community Health Study (FACHS)

Project Summary

Principal Investigators: Ronald Simons (UGA), Steven Beach (UGA), Frederick Gibbons (University of Connecticut)
Funding Agencies: NHLBI, NiCHD, NIDA, NIA, NCI
Project Period: 1996-2023

The Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) is a multi-site, longitudinal investigation of the effect of family processes, neighborhood characteristics, and other contextual factors on African American parents and their children. The study was initiated in 1996 with over 800 families, all of which contained a 5th grader. Data has been collected from the study participants every 2-3 years and is ongoing. The children are now adults in their early 30s and most of the parents are late middle-aged. Study variables were measured using observational, survey, and GIS data. Over 200 papers have been published using the FACHS data. These articles cover a wide range of topics including parenting practices, romantic relationships, school success, discrimination, racial socialization, peer affiliations, higher education, occupational achievement, religiosity, substance use, coping resources and mental health.

In recent years, FACHS data collection has expanded to include blood draws to assess cardiometabolic processes, gene expression, and epigenetic aging. Using this data, FACHS investigators have been able to calculate the extent to which an individual is biologically older or younger than their chronological age. Importantly, accelerated biological aging is a major contributor to early onset of heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, dementia and other diseases of old age. While conventional medicine emphasizes diet, exercise, and smoking as the primary explanations for speed of aging, FACHS investigators have documented the way that social conditions and experiences also exert a major effect.

Funding for the FACHS project has been provided by the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute, the National Cancer Institute, and the National Institute on Aging.

We are currently seeking approval to establish a data repository that would allow increased access for secondary analyses. Once we have an IRB approved plan, scientists will be able to submit a request proposal, indicating the variables that they would like to use in their analyses, and IRB exemption from their institution approving their use of the anonymized data. Then, after approved by the repository committee, researchers will obtain a password that allow them access the data repository.

 

THE FACHS TEAM

Steven Beach

Steven Beach
University of Georgia

Velma Murry

Velma Murry
Vanderbilt University

Ron Simons

Ron Simons
University of Georgia

RGibbons

Rick Gibbons
University of Connecticut

CCutrona

Carolyn Cutrona
Iowa State University

Leslie Gordon Simons

Leslie Gordon Simons
University of Georgia

Meg Gerrad

Meg Gerrard
University of Connecticut

RPhilibert

Robert Philibert
University of Iowa

Karlo Lei

Man-Kit Lei
University of Georgia

EStewart

Eric Stewart
Florida State University

Ashley Barr

Ashley Barr
SUNY Buffalo

SCarter

Sierra Carter
Georgia State University

Mei Ling Ong

Mei Ling Ong
University of Georgia

Landor

Antoinette Landor
University of Missouri

Stacy Barnum

Stacey Barnum
Project Director

Olive Conyers

Olive Conyers
Project Recruitment/Retention

Tracy Anderson

Tracy Anderson
CFR Assistant Director

Valeria Jones

Valeria Jones
Research Tech III

Eric Klopack

Eric Klopack
Graduate Assistant

Megan Steele

Megan Steele
Graduate Assistant

FACHS MANUSCRIPTS IN PRESS

Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X., Fleischli, M.E., & Stock, M.L. (in press). Perceived Racial Discrimination, Cultural Socialization, and Health Behavior in African American Adolescents. Self and Identity.

2020

Andersen, A. M., Lei, M. K., Beach, S. R., Philibert, R. A., Sinha, S., & Colgan, J. D. (2020). Cigarette and cannabis smoking effects on GPR15+ helper T cell levels in peripheral blood: Relationships with epigenetic biomarkers. Genes11(2), 149.

Berg, M. T., Lei, M. K., Beach, S. R., Simons, R. L., & Simons, L. G. (2020). Childhood adversities as determinants of cardiovascular disease risk and perceived illness burden in adulthood: comparing retrospective and prospective self-report measures in a longitudinal sample of African Americans. Journal of youth and adolescence, 1-17.

Berg, M. T., Lei, M. K., & Simons, R. L. (2020). Socially demoralizing environments and the development of the street code from childhood to emerging adulthood. Journal of quantitative criminology36(1), 207-233.

Gibbons, F.X., Fleischli, M.E., Gerrard, M., Simons, R.L., Weng, C-Y., & Gibson, L.P. (2020). The impact of early racial discrimination on illegal behavior, arrest and incarceration among African Americans. American Psychologist, 75, 952-968.

Klopack, E. T., Simons, R. L., & Simons, L. G. (2020). Puberty and Girls’ delinquency: A Test of competing models explaining the relationship between pubertal development and delinquent behavior. Justice Quarterly, 37, 25-52.

Lei, M. K., Gibbons, F. X., Simons, R. L., Philibert, R. A., & Beach, S. R. (2020). The Effect of Tobacco Smoking Differs across Indices of DNA Methylation-Based Aging in an African American Sample: DNA Methylation-Based Indices of Smoking Capture These Effects. Genes11(3), 311.

Lei, M. K., Berg, M. T., Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., & Beach, S. R. (2020). Childhood adversity and cardiovascular disease risk: An appraisal of recall methods with a focus on stress-buffering processes in childhood and adulthood. Social Science & Medicine246, 112794.

Philibert, R., Long, J. D., Mills, J. A., Beach, S. R. H., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., … & Dogan, T. (2020). A simple, rapid, interpretable, actionable and implementable digital PCR based mortality index. Epigenetics, 1-15.

Philibert, R., Beach, S. R., Lei, M. K., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., Simons, R. L., & Dogan, M. V. (2020). Array-based epigenetic aging indices may be racially biased. Genes11(6), 685.

Saleem, F. T., Lambert, S. F., Stock, M. L., & Gibbons, F. X. (2020). Examining changes in African American mothers’ racial socialization patterns during adolescence: Racial discrimination as a predictor. Developmental Psychology56(8), 1610.

Simons, L. G., & Steele, M. E. (2020). The negative impact of economic hardship on adolescent academic engagement: an examination parental investment and family stress processes. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1-18.

Simons, R. L., Lei, M. K., Klopack, E., Zhang, Y., Gibbons, F. X., & Beach, S. R. (2020). Racial Discrimination, Inflammation, and Chronic Illness among African American Women at Midlife: Support for the Weathering Perspective. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.

Simons, R. L., Lei, M. K., Klopack, E., Beach, S. R., Gibbons, F. X., & Philibert, R. A. (2020). The effects of social adversity, discrimination, and health risk behaviors on the accelerated aging of African Americans: Further support for the weathering hypothesis. Social Science & Medicine, 113169.

Steele, M. E., Simons, L. G., Sutton, T. E., & Gibbons, F. X. (2020). Family Context and Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior: an Examination of the Influence of Family Structure, Family Transitions and Parenting. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1-16.

Sutton, T. E., & Simons, L. G. (2020). A Longitudinal Test of a Feminist Pathways Model Among Black Youth: Incorporating Racial Discrimination and School Difficulties. Feminist Criminology, 1557085120923042.

Sutton, T. E., Gordon Simons, L., Martin, B. T., Klopack, E. T., Gibbons, F. X., Beach, S. R., &

Simons, R. L. (2020). Racial Discrimination as a Risk Factor for African American Men’s Physical Partner Violence: A Longitudinal Test of Mediators and Moderators. Violence against Women, 26, 164-190.

Watts, S., Evans, S. Z., Simons, L. G., & Simons, R. L. (2020). The effect of sexual victimization on attachment in emerging adulthood: An analysis of an African-American sample. International Review of Victimology, 0269758020936073.

2019

Beach, S. R., Lei, M. K., Simons, R. L., Barr, A. B., Simons, L. G., Cutrona, C. E., & Philibert, R. A. (2019). Perceived relationship support moderates the association of contextual stress with inflammation among African Americans. Journal of Family Psychology, 33, 338-348.

Carter, S.E., Ong, M.L., Simons, R.L., Gibbons, F.X. Lei, M._K. & Beach, S.R.H., (2019). The effect of early discrimination on accelerated aging among African Americans. Health Psychology, 38, 1010-1013.

Evans, S. Z., Abderhalden, F. P., Simons, L. G., & Simons, R. L. (2019). African American Female Trajectories of Offending From Youth to Young Adulthood. Crime & Delinquency, 65, 322-351.

Klopack, E. T., Sutton, T. E., Simons, R. L., & Simons, L. G. (2019). Disentangling the Effects of Boys’ Pubertal Timing: The Importance of Social Context. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1-13.

Landor, A. M., Simons, L. G., Granberg, E. M., & Melby, J. N. (2019). Colorizing self-esteem among African American young women: Linking skin tone, parental support, and sexual health. Journal of Child and Family Studies28(7), 1886-1898.

Landor, A. M., & Simons, L. G. (2019). Correlates and predictors of virginity among heterosexual African American young adults. Sexuality & Culture23(3), 943-961.

Lei, M. K., Simons, R. L., Beach, S. R., & Philibert, R. A. (2019). Neighborhood disadvantage and biological aging: Using marginal structural models to assess the link between neighborhood census variables and epigenetic aging. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 74, e50-e59.

Mills, J. A., Beach, S., Dogan, M., Simons, R. L., Gibbons, F. X., Long, J. D., & Philibert, R. (2019). A Direct Comparison of the Relationship of Epigenetic Aging and Epigenetic Substance Consumption Markers to Mortality in the Framingham Heart Study. Genes, 10(1), 51.

Murry, V. M. (2019). Healthy African American Families in the 21st Century: Navigating Opportunities and Transcending Adversities. Family Relations, 68, 342-357.

Ong, M. L., Engelhard, G., Klopack, E. T., & Simons, R. L. (2019).  Evaluating observer rating: The case of measuring neighborhood disorder. Journal of Applied Measurement, 20, 405-425.

Simons, R. L., Woodring, D., Simons, L. G., Sutton, T. E., Lei, M. K., Beach, S. R., … & Gibbons, F. X. (2019). Youth adversities amplify the association between adult stressors and chronic inflammation in a domain specific manner: nuancing the early life sensitivity model. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48, 1-16.

Simons, R. L., Lei, M. K., Carter, S., Beach, S. R., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., & Philibert, R. A.

(2019). Inflammation mediates the effect of discrimination, religiosity, and friendship network on expression of the Tp53 cancer suppressor gene. SSM-Population Health, 7, 100389.

Simons, R.L., Lei, M.K., Beach, S.R.H., Simons, L.G., Barr, A.B, Gibbons, F.X. & Philibert, R. A. (2019). Testing life course models whereby juvenile and adult adversity combine to influence speed of biological aging. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 60, 291-308.

Simons, L. G., Sutton, T. E., Landor, A. M., Barr, A. B., Bryant, C. M., & Granberg, E. M. (2019). Gender differences in the dating experiences of African American young adults: The challenge of forming romantic relationships within the context of power imbalance. Youth & Society, 0044118X19828097.

2018

Andersen, A. M., Lei, M. K., Philibert, R. A., & Beach, S. R. (2018). Methylation of MTHFR Moderates the Effect of Smoking on Genomewide Methylation Among Middle Age African Americans. Frontiers in Genetics, 9.

Assari, S., Gibbons, F., & Simons, R. (2018). Perceived Discrimination among Black Youth: An 18-Year Longitudinal Study. Behavioral Sciences, 8, 44.

Assari, S., Gibbons, F.X., & Simons, R.L. (2018). Depression among Black youth; interaction of class and place. Brain Sciences, 8(6), 108–115.

Barr, A. B., Simons, L. G., Simons, R. L., Beach, S. R., & Philibert, R. A. (2018). Sharing the Burden of the Transition to Adulthood: African American Young Adults’ Transition Challenges and Their Mothers’ Health Risk. American Sociological Review, 83, 143-172.

Barr, A. B., & Simons, R. L. (2018). Marital beliefs among African American emerging adults: The roles of community context, family background, and relationship experiences. Journal of Family Issues, 39, 352-382.

Beach, S. R., Lei, M. K., Simons, R. L., Dogan, M. V., Gibbons, F. X., & Philibert, R. A. (2018). MTHFR regulatory effects on methylation of CG05575921 in response to smoking: Effects are also discernable using MTHFR expression. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 177, 529-534.

Cleveland, M. J., Turrisi, R., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., & Marzell, M. (2018). The effects of mothers’ protective parenting and alcohol use on emerging adults’ alcohol use: Testing indirect effects through prototype favorability among African American youth. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 42, 1291-1303.

Dogan, M., Beach, S.R., Simons, R.L., & Philibert, R.A. (2018).  Blood-based biomarkers for predicting the risk for five-year coronary heart disease in the Framingham Heart Study via machine learning. Genes, 9 (12).   doi:10.3390/genes9120641

Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Fleischli, M. E., Cutrona, C. E., & Stock, M. L. (2018). Moderation of the effects of discrimination-induced affective responses on health outcomes. Psychology & Health, 33, 193-212.

Gibbons, F. X., Fleischli, M. E., Gerrard, M., & Simons, R. L. (2018). Reports of perceived racial discrimination among African American children predict negative affect and smoking behavior in adulthood: A sensitive period hypothesis. Development and Psychopathology, 30, 1629-1647.

Gibbons, F.X., & Stock, M.L. (2018) Perceived racial discrimination and health behavior: Mediation and Moderation. In B. Major, J.F. Dovidio, & B.G. Link (Eds.), pp. 355 – 378). The Oxford Handbook of Stigma, Discrimination, and Health. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Lei, M. K., Beach, S. R., & Simons, R. L. (2018). Childhood trauma, pubertal timing, and cardiovascular risk in adulthood. Health Psychology, 37, 613-617.

Lei, M. K., Beach, S. R., & Simons, R. L. (2018). Biological embedding of neighborhood disadvantage and collective efficacy: Influences on chronic illness via accelerated cardiometabolic age. Development and Psychopathology, 30, 1797-1815.

Russell, D. W., Clavél, F. D., Cutrona, C. E., Abraham, W. T., & Burzette, R. G. (2018). Neighborhood racial discrimination and the development of major depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 127, 150-159.

Schofield, T. J., Robins, R. W., Fox, J., Abraham, W. T., & Cutrona, C. (2018). Family health and income: A two-sample replication. Journal of Family Psychology, 32, 632-642.

Simons, R. L., Lei, M. K., Beach, S. R., Barr, A. B., Simons, L. G., Gibbons, F. X., & Philibert, R. A. (2018). Discrimination, segregation, and chronic inflammation: Testing the weathering explanation for the poor health of Black Americans. Developmental Psychology, 54, 1993-2006.

Simons, L. G., Sutton, T. E., Shannon, S., Berg, M. T., & Gibbons, F. X. (2018). The cost of being cool: how adolescent pseudomature behavior maps onto adult adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47, 1007-1021.

Stock, M.L., Gibbons, F.X., Beekman, J., Williams, K.D., Richman, L.S., & Gerrard, M. (2018). Racial (versus Self) Affirmation as a Protective Mechanism against the Effects of Racial Exclusion on Negative Affect and Substance Use Vulnerability among African American Young Adults. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 41, 195-207.

2017

Andersen, A. M., Philibert, R. A., Gibbons, F. X., Simons, R. L., & Long, J. (2017). Accuracy and utility of an epigenetic biomarker for smoking in populations with varying rates of false self report. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 174, 641650.

Beach, S. R., Lei, M. K., Ong, M. L., Brody, G. H., Dogan, M. V., & Philibert, R. A. (2017).

MTHFR methylation moderates the impact of smoking on DNA methylation at AHRR for African American young adults. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 174, 608-618.

Beach, S. R., Lei, M. K., Simons, R. L., Barr, A. B., Simons, L. G., Ehrlich, K., … & Philibert, R. A. (2017). When inflammation and depression go together: The longitudinal effects of parent–child relationships. Development and Psychopathology, 29, 1969-1986.

Berg, M. T., Simons, R. L., Barr, A., Beach, S. R., & Philibert, R. A. (2017).

Childhood/adolescent stressors and allostatic load in adulthood: support for a calibration model. Social Science & Medicine, 193, 130-139.

Burt, C. H., Lei, M. K., & Simons, R. L. (2017). Racial discrimination, racial socialization, and crime: understanding mechanisms of resilience. Social Problems, 64, 414-438.

Burt, C. H., Lei, M. K., & Simons, R. L. (2017). Racial discrimination, racial socialization, and crime over time: A social schematic theory model. Criminology, 55, 938-979.

Clavél, F. D., Cutrona, C. E., & Russell, D. W. (2017). United and divided by stress: How stressors differentially influence social support in African American couples over time. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43, 1050-1064.

Hurt, T. R., Seawell, A. H., Cutrona, C., O’Connor, M. C., Camp, R. D., Duran, R., … & Pattee, J. (2017). Black women’s recommendations for developing effective type 2 diabetes programming. Global Qualitative Nursing Research, 4, 1-12.

Mears, D. P., Stewart, E. A., Warren, P. Y., & Simons, R. L. (2017). Culture and formal social control: The effect of the code of the street on police and court decision-making. Justice Quarterly, 34, 217-247.

Simons, R. L., Lei, M. K., Beach, S. R., Cutrona, C. E., & Philibert, R. A. (2017). Methylation of the oxytocin receptor gene mediates the effect of adversity on negative schemas and depression. Development and Psychopathology, 29, 725-736.

Simons, R. L., Lei, M. K., Beach, S. R., Barr, A. B., Cutrona, C. E., Gibbons, F. X., & Philibert, R. A. (2017). An index of the ratio of inflammatory to antiviral cell types mediates the effects of social adversity and age on chronic illness. Social Science & Medicine, 185, 158-165.

Sutton, T. E., Simons, L. G., Simons, R. L., & Cutrona, C. (2017). Psychological distress, couple interactions, and parenting: A dyadic analysis of African American couples. Journal of Marriage and Family, 79, 850-864.

Walker, R., Francis, D., Brody, G., Simons, R., Cutrona, C., & Gibbons, F. (2017). A longitudinal study of racial discrimination and risk for death ideation in African American youth. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 47, 86-102.

Windsor, L.C., Bennett, K., Smith, D.C. & Gibbons, F.X. (2017). Substance use disorder treatments: Addressing the needs of emerging adults from marginalized groups. In D.C. Smith (Ed.) Emerging Adults in Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Developmental Considerations and Innovative Treatments.

2016

Barr, A. B., Sutton, T. E., Simons, L. G., Wickrama, K. A. S., & Lorenz, F. O. (2016). Romantic relationship transitions and changes in health among rural, White young adults. Journal of Family Psychology, 30, 832-842.

Berg, M. T., Burt, C. H., Lei, M. K., Gordon Simons, L., Stewart, E. A., & Simons, R. (2016). Neighborhood social processes and adolescent sexual partnering: a multilevel appraisal of Anderson’s Player hypothesis. Social Forces, 94, 1823-1846.

Berg, M. T., Stewart, E. A., Intravia, J., Warren, P. Y., & Simons, R. L. (2016). Cynical streets: Neighborhood social processes and perceptions of criminal injustice. Criminology, 54, 520-547.

Carter, S. E., Walker, R. L., Cutrona, C. E., Simons, R. L., & Beach, S. R. (2016). Anxiety mediates perceived discrimination and health in African-American women. American Journal of Health Behavior, 40, 697-704.

Cutrona, C. E., Clavél, F. D., & Johnson, M. A. (2016). African American couples in rural contexts. In Rural Ethnic Minority Youth and Families in the United States (pp. 127-142). Springer, Cham.

Dogan, M. V., Lei, M. K., Beach, S. R., Brody, G. H., & Philibert, R. A. (2016). Alcohol and tobacco consumption alter hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis DNA methylation. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 66, 176-184.

Evans, S. Z., Simons, L. G., & Simons, R. L. (2016). Factors that influence trajectories of delinquency throughout adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45, 156-171.

Gibbons, F.X., Stock, M.L., O’Hara, R.E., & Gerrard, M.  (2016). Prospecting prejudice: An examination of the long-term effects of perceived racial discrimination on the health behavior and health status of African Americans (pp. 199 – 232). In Y. Thomas, L. Price & A. V. Lybrand (Eds.) Trajectories of Drug Use among African Americans. New York: Springer.

Lei, M. K., Beach, S. R., Simons, R. L., Barr, A. B., Cutrona, C. E., & Philibert, R. A. (2016). Stress, relationship satisfaction, and health among African American women: Genetic moderation of effects. Journal of Family Psychology, 30, 221-232.

Murry, V. M., Block, E. P., & Liu, N. (2016). Adjustment and developmental patterns of African American males: The roles of families, communities, and other contexts. In Boys and men in African American families (pp. 7-32). Springer, Cham.

Saleem, F. T., English, D., Busby, D. R., Lambert, S. F., Harrison, A., Stock, M. L., & Gibbons, F. X. (2016). The impact of African American parents’ racial discrimination experiences and perceived neighborhood cohesion on their racial socialization practices. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45, 1338-1349.

Simons, L. G., Wickrama, K. A. S., Lee, T. K., Landers  Potts, M., Cutrona, C., & Conger, R. D. (2016). Testing family stress and family investment explanations for conduct problems among African American adolescents. Journal of Marriage and Family, 78, 498-515.

Simons, L. G., Sutton, T. E., Simons, R. L., Gibbons, F. X., & Murry, V. M. (2016). Mechanisms that link parenting practices to adolescents’ risky sexual behavior: A test of six competing theories. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45, 255-270.

Simons, R. L., Lei, M. K., Beach, S. R., Philibert, R. A., Cutrona, C. E., Gibbons, F. X., & Barr, A. (2016). Economic hardship and biological weathering: the epigenetics of aging in a US sample of black women. Social Science & Medicine, 150, 192-200.

2015

Barr, A. B., Simons, R. L., & Simons, L. G. (2015). Nonmarital Relationships and Changing Perceptions of Marriage among African American Young Adults. Journal of Marriage and Family, 77, 1202-1216.

Barr, A. B., & Simons, R. L. (2015). Different Dimensions, Different Mechanisms? Distinguishing Relationship Status and Quality Effects on Desistance. Journal of Family Psychology, 29, 360-370.

Beach, S. R. H., Dogan, M. V., Lei, M. K., Cutrona, C. E., Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., … & Philibert, R. A. (2015). Methylomic aging as a window onto the influence of lifestyle: tobacco and alcohol use alter the rate of biological aging. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 63, 2519-2525.

Beach, S.R.H., Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X., Brody, G.H., & Philibert, R.A. (2015). A role for epigenetics in broadening the scope of pediatric care in the prevention of adolescent smoking. Epigenetic Diagnosis & Therapy, 1(2), 91-97.

Burt, C. H., & Simons, R. L. (2015). Interpersonal racial discrimination, ethnic-racial socialization, and offending: Risk and resilience among African American females. Justice Quarterly, 32(3), 532-570.

Cutrona, C. E., Abraham, W. T., Russell, D. W., Beach, S. R., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., … & Philibert, R. (2015). Financial strain, inflammatory factors, and haemoglobin A1c levels in African American women. British Journal of Health Psychology, 20, 662-679.

Dogan, M. V., Xiang, J., Beach, S. R., Cutrona, C., Gibbons, F. X., Simons, R. L., … & Philibert, R. A. (2015). Ethnicity and smoking-associated DNA methylation changes at HIV co-receptor GPR15. Frontiers in psychiatry, 6, 132.

Granberg, E. M., Simons, L. G., & Simons, R. L. (2015). The role of body size in mate selection among African American young adults. Sex Roles, 73, 340-354.

Hoskins, D. H., & Simons, L. G. (2015). Predicting the Risk of Pregnancy Among African American Youth: Testing a Social Contextual Model. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(4), 1163-1174.

Hurt, T. R., Seawell, A. H., & O’Connor, M. C. (2015). Developing effective diabetes programming for Black men. Global Qualitative Nursing Research, 2, 2333393615610576.

Kogan, S. M., Cho, J., Simons, L. G., Allen, K. A., Beach, S. R., Simons, R. L., & Gibbons, F. X.

(2015). Pubertal Timing and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Rural African American Male Youth: Testing a Model Based on Life History Theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(3), 609618.

Landers Potts, M. A., Wickrama, K. A. S., Simons, L. G., Cutrona, C., Gibbons, F. X., Simons, R. L., & Conger, R. (2015). An Extension and Moderational Analysis of the Family Stress Model Focusing on African American Adolescents. Family Relations, 64(2), 233-248.

Lee, S., Lei, M. K., & Brody, G. H. (2015). Constructing confidence intervals for effect size measures of an indirect effect. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 50, 600-613.

Lei, M. K., Beach, S. R., Simons, R. L., & Philibert, R. A. (2015). Neighborhood crime and depressive symptoms among African American women: Genetic moderation and epigenetic mediation of effects. Social Science & Medicine, 146, 120-128.

Litt, D. M., Stock, M. L., & Gibbons, F. X. (2015). Adolescent alcohol use: Social comparison orientation moderates the impact of friend and sibling behaviour. British Journal of Health Psychology, 20, 514-533.

Moule, R. K., Burt, C. H., Stewart, E. A., & Simons, R. L. (2015). Developmental Trajectories of Individuals’ Code of the Street Beliefs through Emerging Adulthood. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 52(3), 342-372.

Wills, T.A. Simons, J.S., & Gibbons, F.X. (2015). Self-control and substance use prevention: A translational analysis. In L.M. Scheier (Ed.) Handbook of Adolescent Drug Use  Prevention: Research, intervention Strategies, and Practice (pp. 121-139).New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

2014

Barr, A. B., & Simons, R. L. (2014). A dyadic analysis of relationships and health: Does couplelevel context condition partner effects?. Journal of Family Psychology, 28(4), 448-459.

Behnken, M. P., Abraham, W. T., Cutrona, C. E., Russell, D. W., Simons, R. L., & Gibbons, F. X. (2014). Linking early ADHD to adolescent and early adult outcomes among African Americans. Journal of Criminal Justice, 42(2), 95-103.

Behnken, M. P. (2014). Linking ADHD to Incarceration Among African Americans. The ADHD Report, 22(7), 9-16.

Burt, C. H., Sweeten, G., & Simons, R. L. (2014). Self-control through emerging adulthood:

Instability, multidimensionality, and criminological significance. Criminology, 52(3), 450-487.

Dogan, M. V., Shields, B., Cutrona, C., Gao, L., Gibbons, F. X., Simons, R., … & Philibert, R. A. (2014). The effect of smoking on DNA methylation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from African American women. BMC genomics, 15(1), 151.

Edmond, M. B., Granberg, E., Simons, R., & Lei, M. K. (2014). Distressing relationships, anger, and stress amplification in a sample of young adult African Americans. Journal of Adult Development, 21(1), 13-29.

Gibbons, F. X., Kingsbury, J. H., Weng, C. Y., Gerrard, M., Cutrona, C., Wills, T. A., & Stock, M. (2014). Effects of perceived racial discrimination on health status and health behavior: a differential mediation hypothesis. Health Psychology, 33(1), 11-19.

Intravia, J., Wolff, K. T., Stewart, E. A., & Simons, R. L. (2014). Neighborhood-level differences in police discrimination and subcultural violence: a multilevel examination of adopting the code of the street. Journal of Crime and Justice, 37(1), 42-60.

Lei, M. K., Simons, R. L., Edmond, M. B., Simons, L. G., & Cutrona, C. E. (2014). The effect of neighborhood disadvantage, social ties, and genetic variation on the antisocial behavior of African American women: A multilevel analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 26, 11131128.

Lei, M. K., Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., & Edmond, M. B. (2014). Gender equality and violent behavior: How neighborhood gender equality influences the gender gap in violence. Violence and Victims, 29, 89-108.

Murry, V. M., Berkel, C., Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., & Gibbons, F. X. (2014). A Twelve Year Longitudinal Analysis of Positive Youth Development Among Rural African American Males. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 24(3), 512-525.

Philibert, R. A., Terry, N., Erwin, C., Philibert, W. J., Beach, S. R., & Brody, G. H. (2014). Methylation array data can simultaneously identify individuals and convey protected health information: an unrecognized ethical concern. Clinical Epigenetics, 6(1), 28.

Roldós, M. I. (2014). The Longitudinal Effect of Drug Use on Productivity Status of Nonmetropolitan African American Young Adults. Journal of Drug Education, 44, 34-50.

Seawell, A. H., Cutrona, C. E., & Russell, D. W. (2014). The effects of general social support and social support for racial discrimination on African American women’s well-being. Journal of Black Psychology, 40, 3-26.

Simons, R. L., Burt, C. H., Barr, A. B., Lei, M-K., & Stewart, E. (2014). Incorporating routine activities, activity spaces, and situational definitions into the social schematic theory of crime. Criminology, 52, 655-687.

Simons, R. L., & Barr, A. B. (2014). Shifting perspectives: Cognitive changes mediate the impact of romantic relationships on desistance from crime. Justice Quarterly, 31(5), 793-821.

Simons, L. G., Simons, R. L., Landor, A. M., Bryant, C. M., & Beach, S. R. (2014). Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans. Journal of Family Psychology, 28(3), 368-379.

Wu, E. Y., Reeb, B. T., Martin, M. J., Simons, R. L., Gibbons, F. X., & Conger, R. D. (2014).  Paternal hostility and maternal hostility in European American and African American families.  Journal of marriage and Family, 76, 638-651.

2013

Barr, A., Simons, R. L., & Stewart, E. A. (2013). Code of the street and romantic relationships: A dyadic analysis. Personal Relations, 20, 84-106.

Barr, A., Culatta, E., & Simons, R. (2013). Romantic relationships and health among African American young adults: Linking patterns of relationship quality over time to changes in physical and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 54, 369-385.

Barr, A. B., Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., Gibbons, F. X., & Gerrard, M. (2013). Teen motherhood and pregnancy prototypes: The role of social context in changing young African American mothers’ risk images and contraceptive expectations. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(12), 1884-1897.

Beach, S.R.H., Gerrard, M., Brody, G. H., Simons, R. L., Kogan, S. M., Gibbons, F. X., &

Philibert, R., A. (2013). Epigenetic intermediate phenotypes. In James MacKillop and Marcus Munafo (eds.), Genetic Influences on Addiction: An Intermediate Phenotype Approach. MIT Press.

Beach, S. R. H., Brody, G. H., Lei, M-K., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., Simons, R. L., … Philibert, R. A. (2013). Impact of child sex abuse on adult psychopathology: A genetically and epigenetically informed investigation. Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 3-11.

Berg, M. T., Stewart, E. A., Stewart, E., & Simons, R. L. (2013). A multilevel examination of neighborhood social processes and college enrollment. Social Problems, 60(4), 513-134.

Brody, G.H., Yu, T., Chen Y-F, Kogan, S.M., Evans, G.W., Windle, M., Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X., Simons, R.L., & Philibert, R.A. Supportive family environments, sensitivity genes, and allostatic load among rural African American emerging adults: A prospective analysis, Journal of Family Psychology, 27, 22-29.

Brody, G. H., Yu, T., Chen, Y.-f., Kogan, S. M., Evans, G. W., Beach, S. R. H., Windle, M., Simons, R. L., Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., & Philibert, R. A. (2013). Cumulative socioeconomic status risk, allostatic load, and adjustment: A prospective latent profile analysis with contextual and genetic protective factors. Developmental Psychology, 49, 913-927.

Burt, C. H., & Simons, R.L.. (2013). Self-control, thrill seeking, and crime: Motivation matters. Criminal Justice and Behavior. Advance online publication: doi:10.1177/ 0093854813485575.

Chen. H-J. (2013). Robust protective factors for African American youths who have a parent with depression. Social Work Research, 37, 121-134.

Hurt, T. R., Brody, G. H., Murry, V. M., Berkel, C., & Chen, Y-F. (2013). Elucidating parenting processes that influence adolescent alcohol use. Journal of Adolescent Research, 28, 3-30.

Kogan, S. M., Lei, M-K., Grange, C. R., Simons, R. L., Brody, G. H., Gibbons, F. X., & Chen, Y. (2013). The contribution of community and family contexts to African American young adults’ romantic relationship health: A prospective analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 878890.

Kogan, S. M., Cho, J., Allen, K. R., Lei, M-K., Beach, S. R. H., Gibbons, F. X., & Simons, L. G.,  Simons,  R. L., & Brody, G. H. (2013). Avoiding adolescent pregnancy: A longitudinal analysis of African American youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(1), 14-20.

Landor, A. M., Simons, L. G., Simons, R. L., Brody, G. H., Bryant, C. M., Gibbons, F. X., … & Melby, J. N. (2013). Exploring the impact of skin tone on family dynamics and race-related outcomes. Journal of Family Psychology, 27(5), 817-826.

Mears, D.P., Stewart, E.A., Siennick, S.E., & Simons, R.L. (2013). The code of the street and inmate violence: Investigating the salience of imported beliefs. Criminology, 51, 695-728.

Murry, V.M, Simons, R.L., Simons, L.G., & Gibbons, F.X.(2013). Contributions of family environment and parenting processes to sexual risk and substance use of rural African American males: A 4-year longitudinal analysis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 83, 299-309.

Simons, L.G., Simons, R. L., & Su, X. (2013). Consequences of corporal punishment among African Americans:  The importance of context and outcome.  Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 1273-1285.

Simons, R.L., & Lei, M.K. (2013). Enhanced susceptibility to context: An alternative perspective on the interplay of genes and the social environment. In C. Gibson and M. Krohn (eds), Handbook of Life-Course Criminology (pp. 57-67). Springer Verlag.

Simons, R.L., Lei, M.K., Beach, S.R.H., Brody, G.H., Philibert, R., & Gibbons, F.X. (2013). Differential sensitivity to context: GABRG1 enhances the acquisition of prototypes that serve as intermediate phenotypes for substance use. In James MacKillop and Marcus Munafo (eds.), Genetic Influences on Addiction: An Intermediate Phenotype Approach. MIT Press.

Simons, R.L., Simons, L.G., Lei, M-K., Beach, S.R., Brody, G.H., Philibert, R.A., & Gibbons, F.X. (2013). Genetic moderation of the impact of parenting on hostility toward romantic partners Journal of Marriage and Family, 75, 325-341.

Stock,M.L., Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M., Houlihan,A., Weng, C.Y.,  Lorenz, F.O., & Simons, R.L. (2013). Racial identification, racial composition, and substance use vulnerability among African American adolescents and young adults. Health Psychology, 32, 237-247.

Stock, M.L., Gibbons, F.X, Peterson, L.M., & Gerrard, M. (2013). The effects of racial discrimination on the HIV-risk cognitions and behaviors of Black adolescents and young adults. Health Psychology, 32, 543-550.

Wallace, G. (2013). African-American mothers’ community social capital and parenting quality: Does personal outlook make a difference? Sociological Perspectives, 56, 261-285.

Widaman, K. F., Grimm, K. J., Early, D. R., Robins, R. W., & Conger, R. D. (2013).

Investigating factorial invariance of latent variables across populations when manifest variables are missing completely. Structural Equation Modeling, 20, 384-408.

Zhylyevskyy, O., Jensen, H. H., Garasky, S. B., Cutrona, C. E., & Gibbons, F. X. (2013). Effects of family, friends, and relative prices on fruit and vegetable consumption by African Americans. Southern Economic Journal, 80(1), 226-251.

2012

Barr, A., & Simons, R.L. (2012). Marriage expectations among African American couples in early adulthood: A Dyadic Analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family, 74, 726-742.

Barr, A. & Simons, R.L. (2012). College aspirations and expectations among new AfricanAmerican mothers in late adolescence. Gender and Education, 24, 745-763.

Beach, S. R. H., Lei, M. K., Brody, G. H., Simons, R. L., Cutrona, C., & Philibert, R. A. (2012). Genetic moderation of contextual effects on negative arousal and parenting in African-American parents. Journal of Family Psychology, 26(1), 46-55.

Berg, M. T., Stewart, E. A., & Simons, R. L. (2012). Neighborhood cultural heterogeneity and adolescent violence. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 28, 411-435.

Berg, M. T., Stewart, E.A., Schreck, C., & Simons, R.L. (2012). The victim-offender overlap in context: examining the role of neighborhood street culture. Criminology, 50, 359-390.

Brody, G.H., Yu, Y.F., Beach, R.S.H., Kogan, S., Simons, R.L., Windle, M., & Philibert, R. (2012). Life stress, the dopamine receptor gene, and emerging adult drug use trajectories: A longitudinal, multilevel, mediated moderation analysis.  Development and Psychopathology, 24, 941-951.

Burt, C.H., Simons, R.L., & Gibbons, F.X. (2012). Racial discrimination, ethnic-racial socialization and crime: A microsociological model of risk and resilience. American Sociological Review, 77, 648-677.

Evans, S. Z., Simons, L. G., & Simons, R. L. (2012). The effect of corporal punishment and verbal abuse on delinquency: Mediating mechanisms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 1095-1110.

Granberg, E., Edmonds, M. B., Simons, R.L., Gibbons, F., & Lei, M-K. (2012). The association between racial socialization and depression: Testing direct and buffering associations in a longitudinal cohort of young adult African Americans. Society and Mental Health, 2, 207-225.

Gerrard, M., Stock, M.L., Roberts, M.E., Gibbons, F.X., O’Hara, R.E., & Weng, C-Y. (2012). Coping with racial discrimination: The role of substance use. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26, 550-560.

Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M. & Pomery, E.A. (2010).  Racial discrimination and substance abuse: Risk and protective factors in African American adolescents. In L. Scheier (Ed.) Handbook of Drug etiology: Theory, Methods and Empirical Findings (pp. 341 – 361). Washington, D.C.:  APA Press.

Gibbons, F.X., Roberts, M.E., Gerrard, M., Li, Z., Beach, S.R.H., Simons, R.L., Weng, C-Y., & Philibert, R.A. (2012). The impact of stress on the life history strategies of African American adolescents: Cognitions, genetic moderation, and the role of discrimination. Developmental Psychology, 48, 722-739 (special issue on evolutionary-developmental psychology).

Gibbons, F.X., O’Hara, R.E., Stock, M.L., Gerrard, M., Weng, C-Y., Wills, T.A. (2012). The erosive effects of racism: Reduced self-control mediates the relation between perceived racial discrimination and substance use in African American adolescents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 1089-1104.

O’Hara, R.E., Gibbons, F.X., Weng, C-Y., Gerrard, M., & Simons, R.L. (2012). Perceived racial discrimination as a barrier to college attendance for African Americans: Mediation by academic orientation and expectations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(1), 77-89.

Roberts, M.E., Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M., Weng, C.-Y., Murry, V.M., Simons, L.G., Simons, R.L., & Lorenz, F.O. (2012). From racial discrimination to risky sex: Prospective relations involving peers and parents. Developmental Psychology, 48(1), 89-102.

Schofield, T. J., Conger, R. D., Conger, K. J., Martin, M. J., Brody, G., Simons, R. L., & Cutrona, C. (2012). Neighborhood disorder and children’s antisocial behavior: The protective effect of family support among Mexican American and African American families. American Journal of Community Psychology, 50, 103-113.

Simons, R.L., Lei, M.-K., Beach, S.R.H., Brody, G., Philibert, R.A., & Gibbons, F.X. (2012). Social adversity, genetic variation, street code, and aggression: A genetically informed model of violent behavior. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 10, 2– 24.

Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., Lei, M. K., & Landor, A. (2012). Relational schemas, hostile view of relationships and beliefs about marriage among young African American adults: A developmental model. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 29, 77-101.

Simons, R.L., Beach, S.H., & Barr, A. (2012). Differential susceptibility to context: A promising model of the interplay of genes and the environment. In Will Kalkoff, Shane R. Thye, & Edward J. Lawler (Eds.), Biosociology and Neurosociology: Advances in Group Processes, Vol. 29. Emerald Publishing Limited (pp 139-163).  Doi: 10.1108/S0882-6145(2012)0000029008

Vijayendran, M., Cutrona, C., Beach, S. R. H., Brody, G. H., Russell, D., & Philibert, R. A. (2012). American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 159B, 611612.

Zhylyevskyy, O., Jensen, H. H., Garasky, S. B., Cutrona, C. E., & Gibbons, F. X. (2013). Effects of family, friends, and relative prices on fruit and vegetable consumption by African Americans. Southern Economic Journal, 80, 226-251.

2011

Brody, G.H., Beach, S.R.H., Philibert, R., & Simons, R.L. (2011). Perceived discrimination, 5HTTLPR status, and development of conduct problems. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 617-627.

Cutrona, C. E., Russell, D. W., Burzette, R., Wesner, K., & Bryant, C. (2011). Predicting relationship stability among midlife African American couples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 79, 814-825.

Kogan, S. Brody, G.H., Gibbons, F.X., Chen, Y., Grange, H.M., Simons, R., Gerrard, M., & Cutrona, C.E. (2011). Mechanisms of family impact on African American adolescents’ HIVrelated behavior: A cascade model. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 361–375.

Landor, A., Simons, L.G., Simons, R.L., Brody, G.H., & Gibbons, F.X. (2011). The role of religiosity in the relationship between parents, peers, and adolescent risky sexual behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 296-309.

Martin, M.J., McCarthy, B., Conger, R.D., Gibbons, F.X., Simons, R.L., Cutrona, C.E., & Brody, G.H. (2011). The enduring significance of racism: Discrimination and delinquency among Black American youth. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 662-676.

Murry, V.M., Berkel, C., Chen, Y.-F., Brody, G.H., Gibbons, F.X., & Gerrard, M. (2011).

Intervention induced changes on parenting practices, youth self-pride, and sexual norms to reduce HIV-related behaviors among rural African American youths. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 1147-1163.

Philibert, R. A., Beach, S. R. H., Gunter, T. D., Todorov, A. A., Brody, G. H., Vijayendran, M., Elliott, L., Hollenbeck, N., Russell, D., & Cutrona, C. (2011). American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 156, 593-599.

Simons, L.G., Simons, R.L., Lei, M.K., & Hancock, D. (2012). Parental warmth amplifies the effect of parental hostility: Counter intuitive findings regarding the intergenerational transmission of violence. Interpersonal Violence, 27, 2603-2626.

Simons, R. L., & Burt, C. H. (2011). Learning to be bad: Adverse conditions, social schemas, and crime. Criminology, 49, 553- 598.

Simons, R.L., Lei, M.K., Beach, S.R.H., Brody, G.H., Philibert, R.A., & Gibbons, F.X. (2011). Social environment, genes, and aggression: Evidence supporting the differential susceptibility hypothesis. American Sociological Review, 76, 883-912.

Stock, M.L., Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M., Houlihan, A.E. Weng, C-Y., Lorenz, F.O., & Simons, R.L. (2011). Racial identification, racial discrimination, and substance use vulnerability among African American young adults Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 1349-1361.

Su, X., Simons, R. L., & Simons, L. G. (2011). Interparental aggression and antisocial behavior among African American youth: A simultaneous test of competing explanations. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 1489-1502.

2010

Gibbons, F.X., Etcheverry, P.E., Stock, M.L., Gerrard, M., Weng, C.-Y., Kiviniemi, M., & O’Hara, R.E. (2010). Exploring the link between racial discrimination and substance use. What mediates? What buffers? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(5), 785-801.

Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M., & Pomery, E.A. (2010). Racial discrimination and substance abuse:

Risk and protective factors in African American adolescents. In L. Scheier (Ed.) Handbook of Drug Etiology: Theory, Methods and Empirical Findings (pp. 341–361). Washington, D.C.: APA Press.

Guyll, M., Cutrona, C. E., Burzette, R., & Russell, D. (2010). Relationship quality as a moderator of the impact of interpersonal hostility on health in African American couples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 646-654.

Reimer, R.A., Gerrard, M., & Gibbons, F.X. (2010). Racial disparities in smoking knowledge among current smokers: Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey. Psychology and Health, 25, 943-959.

Roberts, M.E., Gerrard, M., Reimer, R. & Gibbons, F.X. (2010). Mother-daughter communication and Human Papillomavirus Vaccine uptake by college students. Pediatrics, 125, 982–989.

Stewart, E., & Simons, R. L. (2010). Race, code of the street, and violent delinquency: A multilevel investigation of neighborhood street culture and individual norms of violence. Criminology, 48, 569-606.

Taylor, Z. E., Larsen-Rife, D., Conger, R. D., Widaman, K., & Cutrona, C. E. (2010). Life stress, maternal optimism, and adolescent competence in single mother African American families. Journal of Family Psychology, 24, 468-477.

Wills, T.A., Gibbons, F.X., Sargent, J.D., Gerrard, M., Lee, H-R., & Dal Cin, S. (2010). Good self-control moderates the effect of mass media on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use: Tests with studies of children and adolescents. Health Psychology, 29, 539-549.

2009

Berkel, C., Murry, V. M., Hurt, T. R., Chen, Y.-f., Brody, G. H., Simons, R. L., Cutrona, C., & Gibbons, F. X. (2009). It takes a village: Protecting rural African American youth in the context of racism. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 38, 175-188.

Black, A. R., Murry, V. M., Chen, Y., & Cutrona, C. (2009). Multiple roles, multiple lives: The protective effects of role responsibilities on the health functioning of African American mothers. Women & Health, 49, 144-163.

Granberg, E., Simons, L. G., & Simons, R. L. (2009). Body size and self image: The moderating effect of family racial socialization. Adolescence, 41(2), 256-277.

Pomery, E.A., Gibbons, F.X., Reis-Bergan, M., & Gerrard, M. (2009). From Willingness to

Intention: Experience moderates the shift from reactive to reasoned behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 894-908.\

Stewart, E. A., Baumer, E., Brunson, R., & Simons, R. L. (2009). Defended neighborhoods, Black neighbors, and White neighborhoods: Racially-biased policing against Black adolescents. Criminology, 47, 847-888.

Stewart, E. A. & Simons, R. L. (2009). “The Code of the Street and African-American Adolescent Violence.” Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. NCJ 223509.

2008

Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X., Houlihan, A.E., Stock, M.L., & Pomery, E.A. (2008). A dual process approach to health risk decision making: The prototype willingness model. Developmental Review, 28, 29-61. (Invited paper in Special Issue: Emerging Directions in Risk and Rational Decision Making).

Ghosh, M., & Maiti, T. (2008). Empirical Bayes confidence intervals for means of natural exponential family-quadratic variance function distributions with application to small area estimation. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 35, 484-495.

Gibbons, F.X., Pomery, E.A., & Gerrard, M. (2008). Risk representations: An image-based model of peer influence. In M. Prinstein & K.A. Dodge (Eds.) Peer contagion processes among youth (pp. 45 – 71). NY: Guilford Press.

Granberg, E., Simons, R.L., Gibbons, F.X., & Melby, J. (2008). The relationship between body size and depressed mood: Findings from a sample of African American middle school girls. Youth and Society, 39, 294–315.

Houlihan, A.E., Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M., Reimer, R. A., Yeh, H-C., & Murry, V.M. (2008). Sex and the self: The impact of early sexual onset on the self-concept and subsequent risky behavior of African American adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 28(1), 70–91.

Jin, R., Ge, X., Brody, G.H., Simons, R.L., Cutrona, C.E., & Gibbons, F.X. (2008). Antecedents and consequences of psychiatric disorders in African American adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(5), 439-505.

Kogan, S. M., Brody, G. H., Gibbons, F. X., Murry, V. M., Cutrona, C. E., Simons, R. L., Wingood, G. R., & DiClemente, R. (2008). The influence of role status on risky sexual behavior among African Americans during the transition to adulthood. Journal of Black Psychology, 34, 381-398.

McLoyd, V. C., Toyokawa, T., & Kaplan, R. (2008). Work demands, work-family conflict, and child adjustment in African American families: The mediating role of family routines. Journal of Family Issues, 29, 1247-1267.

Murry, V.M., Brody, G.H., Simons, R.L., Cutrona, C.E., & Gibbons, F.X. (2008). Disentangling ethnicity and context as predictors of parenting within rural African American families. Applied Developmental Science, 12, 202-210.

Murry, V.M., Harrell, A.W., Brody, G.H., Chen, Y-F. Simons, R.L., Black, A.R., Cutrona, C.E., & Gibbons, F.X. (2008). Long-term effects of stressors on relationship well-being and parenting among rural African American women. Family Relations (special issue), 57, 117-127.

Simons, L. G., Granberg, E., Chen, Y.-f., Simons, R. L., Conger, R. D., Gibbons, F. X., Brody, G.

  1. [sic], & Murry, V. M. (2008). Differences between European Americans and African Americans in the association between child obesity and disrupted parenting. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 39(4), 589-610.

2007

Gibbons, F.X., Reimer, R.A., Gerrard, M., Yeh, H-C., Houlihan, A., Cutrona, C.E., Simons, R.

L., & Brody, G.H. (2007). Rural – Urban differences in substance use among African American adolescents. Journal of Rural Health, 23, 22-28.

Gibbons, F.X., Yeh, H., Gerrard, M. Cleveland, M.J., Cutrona, C. Simons, R.L., & Brody, G.H. (2007). Early experience with discrimination and conduct disorder as predictors of subsequent drug use: A critical period analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 88, S27 – S37.

Murry, V.M., Berkel, C., Brody, G.H., Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X. (2007). The Strong African American Families Program: Longitudinal pathways to sexual risk reduction. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 333-342.

Natsuaki, N. Ge, X. Brody, G. H., Simons, R. L., Gibbons, F. X., & Cutrona C. (2007). American African children’s depressive symptoms: Prospective effect of neighborhood disorder, stressful life events, and parenting. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39(1-2), 163-176.

Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., Chen, Y., Brody, G. H., & Lin, K. (2007). Identifying the psychological factors that mediate the association between parenting practices and delinquency. Criminology, 45, 481-517.

Stewart, E. B., Stewart, E. A., & Simons, R. L. (2007). The effect of neighborhood context on the college aspirations of African American adolescents. American Educational Research Journal, 44, 896-919.

2006

Brody, G.H. Chen, Y.-f., Murry, V.M., Ge, X., Simons, R.L., Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M. & Cutrona, C. (2006). Perceived discrimination and the adjustment of African American youths: A five-year longitudinal analysis with contextual moderation effects. Child Development, 77, 1170–1189.

Burt, C. H., Simons, R. L., & Simons, L. G. (2006). A longitudinal test of the Effects of parenting and the stability of self control: Negative evidence for the General Theory of Crime. Criminology, 44, 353-396.

Cutrona, C. E., Wallace, G., & Wesner, K. (2006). Neighborhood characteristics and depression. Current Directions in Psychology, 15, 188-192.

Ge, X., Brody, G. H., Conger, R. D., & Simons, R. L. (2006). Pubertal maturation and African American children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(4), 531-540.

Ge, X., Jin, R., Natsuaki M.N., Gibbons, F.X., Brody, G.H., Cutrona, C.E., & Simons, R.L.

(2006). Pubertal maturation and early substance use risks in African American children. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20, 404–414.

Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Stock, M.L., Houlihan, A.E., & Dykstra, J.L. (2006). Temperament, self-regulation, and the prototype willingness model of adolescent health risk behavior. In D. de Ridder & J. de Wit (Eds.) Self-regulation in Health Behavior, (p.p. 97-117). W. Sussex, UK: Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Simons, L. G., Chen, Y.-f., Simons, R. L., Brody, G., & Cutrona, C. (2006). Parenting practices and child adjustment in different types of households: A study of African American families. Journal of Family Issues, 27(6), 803-825.

Simons, L. G., Simons, R. L., Chen, Y., Brody, G., & Cutrona, C. (2006). Investigating the differences in quality of parenting and child outcomes by type of household. Journal of Family Issues, 27, 777-802.

Simons, R.L., Simons, L.G., Burt, C.H., Drummond, H., Stewart, E., Brody, G.H., Gibbons, F.X.,

& Cutrona, C.E. (2006). Supportive parenting moderates the effect of discrimination upon anger, hostile view of relationships, and violence among African American boys. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 47, 373–389.

Stewart, E. A., Shreck, C. J., & Simons, R. L. (2006). “I ain’t gonna let no one disrespect me”: Does the code of the street reduce occurrences of violent victimization among African American adolescents? Journal for Research on Crime and Delinquency, 23, 1-33.

Stewart, E. A., & Simons, R. L. (2006). Structure and culture in African-American violence: A partial test of the code of the street thesis. Justice Quarterly, 43, 427-458.

2005

Black, A. R., Cook, J. L., Murry, V. M., Logan, P., & Cutrona, C. E. (2005). Ties that bind: Implications of social support for rural, partnered African American women’s health functioning. Women’s Health Issues, 15, 216-223.

Cleveland, M.J., Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M., Pomery, E.A., & Brody, G.H. (2005). The impact of parenting on risk cognitions and risk behavior: A study of mediation and moderation in a panel of African American adolescents. Child Development, 76, 900-916.

Cutrona, C. E., Russell, D. W., Brown, P. A., Clark, L. A., Hessling, R. M., & Gardner, K. A. (2005). Neighborhood context, personality, and stressful life events as predictors of depression among African American women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 3-15.

Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X., Stock (Gano), M.L., Vande Lune, L., & Cleveland, M. J. (2005). Images of smokers and willingness to smoke among African American pre-adolescents: An application of the prototype/willingness model of adolescent health risk behavior to smoking initiation. Pediatric Psychology, 30, 305–318.

Murry, V.M., Brody, G.H., McNair, L.D., Lu, Z., Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M. & Wills, T.A. (2005). Parental involvement promotes rural African American youths’ self-pride and sexual selfconcepts. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 67, 627 – 642.

Pomery, E.A., Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M., Cleveland, M.J., Brody, G.H., & Wills, T.A. (2005). Families and risk: Prospective analyses of familial and social influences on adolescent substance use. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 560-570.

Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., Burt, C. H., Brody, G. H., & Cutrona, C. (2005). Collective efficacy, authoritative parenting, and delinquency: Test of a model integrating community- and family-level processes. Criminology, 43, 989-1030.

2004

Brody, G.H., Murry, V.M., Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X., Molgaard, V., McNair, L., Brown, A.C.,

Wills, T.A., Spoth, R.L., Luo, Z., Chen, Y., & Neubaum-Carlan, E. (2004). The Strong African American Families Program: Translating research into prevention programming. Child Development, 75, 900-917.

Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M., Cleveland, M.J., Wills, T.A., & Brody, G.H. (2004). Perceived discrimination and substance use in African American parents and their children: A panel study.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 517-529. Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M., Vande Lune, L.S., Wills, T.A., Brody, G., & Conger, R.D. (2004).

Context and cognition: Environmental risk, social influence, and adolescent substance use. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1048-1061.

Simons, L. G., Simons, R. L., & Conger, R. D. (2004). Identifying the mechanisms whereby family religiosity influences the probability of adolescent antisocial behavior. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 547-564.

Simons, L. G., Simons, R. L., Conger, R. D., & Brody, G. H. (2004). Collective socialization and child conduct problems: A multilevel analysis with an African American sample. Youth and Society, 35, 267-292.

2003

Brody, G.H., Ge, X., Kim, S.Y., Murry, V.M., Simons, R.L., Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M., & Conger, R.D. (2003). Neighborhood disadvantage moderates associations of parenting and older sibling problem attitudes and behavior with conduct disorders in African American children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 211-222.

Ge, X., Kim, I.J., Brody, G.H., Conger, R.D., Simons, R.L., Gibbons, F.X., & Cutrona, C. (2003). It’s about timing and change: Pubertal transition effects on symptoms of major depression among African American youths. Developmental Psychology, 39, 430-439.

Cutrona, C. E., Russell, D. W., Abraham, W. T., Gardner, K. A., Melby, J. N., Bryant, C., & Conger, R. D. (2003). Neighborhood context and financial strain as predictors of marital interaction and marital quality in African American couples. Personal Relationships, 10, 389–409.

Kim, I.J., Ge, X., Brody, G.H., Conger, R.D., Simons, R.L., Gibbons, F.X., & Cutrona, C. (2003). Parenting behaviors and changes in co-occurring depressive symptoms and conduct problems among African American children. Journal of Family Psychology, 17, 571 – 583.

Simons, R. L., Chen, Y., Stewart, E. A., & Brody, G. (2003). Incidents of discrimination and risk for delinquency: A longitudinal test of strain theory with an African American sample. Justice Quarterly, 20, 501-528.

Wills, T.A., Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M., Murry, V.M., & Brody, G.H. (2003). Family communication and religiosity related to substance use and sexual behavior in early adolescence: A test for pathways through self-control and prototype perceptions. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17, 312-323.

2002

Conger, R. D., Ebert-Wallace, L., Sun, Y., Simons, R. L., McLoyd, V., & Brody, G. H. (2002). Economic pressure in African American families: A replication and extension of the Family Stress Model. Developmental Psychology. 38, 179-193.

Simons, R. L., Murry, V., McLoyd, V., Lin, K. H., Cutrona, C. E., & Conger, R. D. (2002).

Discrimination, crime, ethnic identity, and parenting as correlates of depressive symptoms among African American children: A multilevel analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 371–393.

Ge, X., Brody, G. H., Conger, R. D., Simons, R.L., & Murry, V. M. (2002). Contextual amplification of the effects of pubertal transition on African American children’s deviant peer affiliation and externalized behavioral problems. Developmental Psychology, 38, 42-54.

Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Vande Lune, L. S., Pexa, N. A., & Gano, M. L. (2002). Adolescents’ substance-related risk perceptions: Antecedents, mediators, and consequences. Risk, Decision, and Policy, 7, 175-191.

Murry, V. M., Brody, G. H., Brown, A., Wisenbaker, J., Cutrona, C. E., & Simons, R. L. (2002). Linking employment status, maternal psychological well-being, parenting, and children’s attributions about poverty in families receiving government assistance. Family Relations, 51(2), 112-120.

Simons, R. L., Lin, K.-H., Gordon, L. C., Brody, G. H., Murry, V., & Conger, R. D. (2002). Community differences in the association between parenting practices and child conduct problems. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 331-345.

Simons, R. L., Murry, V., McLoyd, V., Lin, K., Cutrona, C., & Conger, R. D. (2002).

Discrimination, crime, ethnic identity and parenting as correlates of depressive symptoms among African American children: A multilevel analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 371393.

Stewart, E. A., Simons, R. L., & Conger, R. D. (2002). Assessing neighborhood and social psychogical influences on childhood violence in an African-American sample. Criminology, 40, 801-830.

2001

Brody, G. H., Ge, X., Conger, R., Gibbons, F. X., Murry, V. M., Gerrard, M., & Simons, R. L. (2001). The influence of neighborhood disadvantage, collective socialization, and parenting on African American children’s affiliation with deviant peers. Child Development, 72, 1231-1246.

Murry, V. M., Brown, P. A., Brody, G. H., Cutrona, C. E., & Simons, R. L. (2001). Racial discrimination as a moderator of the links among stress, maternal psychological functioning, and family relationships. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 915- 926.

2000

Cutrona, C. E., Russell, D. W., Hessling, R. M., & Brown, P. A. (2000). Direct and moderating effects of community context on the psychological well being of African American women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 1088–1101.

Wills, T. A., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., & Brody, G. H. (2000). Protection and vulnerability processes relevant for early onset of substance use: A test among African American children. Health Psychology, 19, 253-263.

FACHS Manuscripts under Revision or Review

Berg, M. T., Lei, M-K., Beach, S. R. H., Simons, R. L., & Simons, L. G. Early life socioenvironmental adversities and adult physical health outcomes: Comparing prospective and retrospective measures in a longitudinal cohort sample. Under review.

Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M., Fleischli, M.E., Simons, R.L., & Kingsbury, J.H.. The effect of perceived racial discrimination on healthy behavior among African American females. Under review.

Lei, M-K., Berg, M. T., Simons, R. L., Simons, L. G., & Beach, S. R. H. Childhood adversity and cardiovascular risk: An appraisal of recall methods with a focus on stress buffering processes. Revise and Resubmit.

Lei, M-K., Beach, S. R. H., Simons, R. L., & Ye, K. Differential expression of FTO mediates the impact of prospectively assessed social adversity on the development of obesity. Under review.